It's time for our regular segment in which @Gafgarian (AKA Jeremiah Palmer) provides answers to the burning questions left unanswered in each episode of the Rooster Teeth Podcast. Read on to get closure for Girls Don’t… Have… Wet… Dreams – #420.
Is Australia upside down?
Yep. As in, "I am right side up, Australia is directly beneath me (on the other side of the planet of course), therefore, they are upside down... in relation to me of course." It is that last bit which frustrates the "Flat-Earthers" of the world. But this question isn't about the idiocy of a Flat-Earth theory, it is about antipodes and their relation to you. An antipode is the "direct opposite of something else." In this case, your antipode is the point directly opposite you on the Earth. Here is a handy website that lets you find the antipode for any point on the globe. Let's take Austin, TX as an example.
The site tells us that the antipode of Austin is actually pretty much right in the middle of the Indian Ocean. This means that if @burnie sent a friend (or @bgibbles) to that exact GPS coordinate to float in the ocean for a bit, Blaine would be floating directly "beneath" Burnie, relative to his position in Austin. By comparison, if @Gavino were to be hanging out in the UK during this time, both Burnie and Blaine would be perpendicular, or "lying on their sides," relative to him. Roughly, the UK isn't an exact 90-degree perpendicular to Austin and the Indian Ocean, but hopefully you get the point.
If you are still having issues, think about three ants standing on a basketball. Two are sitting at the line intersections along the ball's "equator," directly opposite each other. These two ants are antipodes and are Burnie and Blaine. To Gavin, sitting on top of the ball at its "North Pole," so to speak, both Burnie and Blaine are hanging out on the ball sideways while Gavin is "right side up." Now imagine you are Burnie the ant, Blaine is directly beneath you, upside-down, and Gavin is the sideways one. Blaine the Ant has nearly the same observation but with Burnie as the "gravity-defying-one."
Perhaps the easiest way to recognize this very real observation, while simultaneously adding to the necessary complexity of the Flat-Earther's flat Earth explanation, is that antipodes that are different north/south hemispheres, which most would be, will also see a "reversed" image of the moon. This concept may be a bit more difficult to comprehend without a graphic, so I've found, and added, on below. Honestly, for some reason, this never even occurred to me but it makes total sense. Since your concept of "right-side-up" is completely relative to you, your concept of what the moon's appearance would also be relative to your vantage point.
Additionally, the closer you live to the Tropics of Capricorn or Cancer, the more you and your compatriots also living in those areas would agree on the appearance of the moon. This is because these points match the axis tilt of the Earth and essentially cause your position on Earth, relative to the moon's orbit, to be relatively parallel.
As for the age-old question of "Why don't Australians just fall off if they are upside down?" I would reply, “Why aren't you falling off? You aren't on ‘top’ of the world right now. How can ships sail through the Panama Canal without listing terribly to one side? Why hasn't the ocean's water in the southern hemisphere fallen from the Earth and floated into space yet?”
I think the idea that this question is for some reason only ever applied to humans in the southern hemisphere is testament to the arrogance of humanity. Let's forget about the MILLIONS of other things that would be affected if gravity just didn't apply below the equator. The point is, they, and everything else "down" there, stays put because the gravity affecting it is from our planet, and while it may seem to constantly pull you "down," this is only relative to you. To the Australian, gravity is actually pulling you "up." Right? LOL.
Perhaps the most mind-boggling observation, for me, that came from researching this is the realization that as you travel south from the northern hemisphere to the southern hemisphere, the orientation of the phases of the moon have to change as well. Since the moon itself appears “upside-down” relative to my current position, a person standing on the equator would, naturally, have to see the mid-point observations. This causes the moon’s phases to appear perpendicular to the horizon. Additionally, best I can tell, while the moon phase names have been transferred to the southern hemisphere, they are reversed, appearing right-to-left. Literally blown away by all of this. Am I alone in this?
How long can a human body hang upside down before you die?
There doesn't actually seem to be a consensus for this one. There are a few reasons for this, not the least of which is a general lack of data since there have not been a large amount of deaths, proportionally speaking, caused by hanging upside down, also known as inverse suspension. While the adverse affects on your health are many and include the potential for brain aneurysms, hemorrhaging, and other lovely maladies related to your brain and it essentially "popping" in some way due to the increased blood pressure, most deaths from inverse suspension are usually caused by asphyxiation.
Doctors believe that the pull of gravity on your internal organs actually ends up compressing your diaphragm over time, making it extremely difficult to breathe. This lower amount of oxygen intake, combined with a poorer blood circulation due to the many systems that are typically aided by gravity to move your blood and its oxygen loaded cells through your body, lead to asphyxiation and death. Another notable cause of death, though with a much more random victim count, is heart failure. Because the circulatory system is now fighting against gravity, the heart is forced to pump harder and faster in order to keep the blood flowing to the extremities. This can quickly lead to undue stress on the organ, causing it to give out. This is especially true in the case of older people or those who already suffer from some form of cardiac stress.
Regarding the answer specifically, most recorded cases of death put the time at somewhere between 15 and 30 hours, depending on various factors including your age, physical shape, exact position of suspension, height, weight, gender, previous medical conditions, and many more.
Gavin's shooting star meme?
As a bonus, the creator, Jordan Bailey, recently released one for Burnie as well. It leverages a quality fail which the entire RT community has come to appreciate by now.
Is "digitigrade" a real thing?
It totally is and now we all owe Jessica for teaching us a new word. However, it is important to note that the actual definition of digitigrade refers to the way in which the animal walks, or their locomotion, and not necessarily their leg shape. That said, all digitigrade animals do have the turned-backward "knee." It is much more likely, though, that Jessica was referring to digitigrade posture. This is essentially the same thing and, depending on what your source is, you'd likely see many of the same details; however, the inclusion of the word “posture” typically has a connotation that attaches it to the stance of the animal and somewhat distances its definition from their form of locomotion. For example, the use of digitigrade posture will sometimes be seen among Furries or cosplaying since they obviously can't change their locomotion, but they can make their posture and general look have the appearance of digitigrade locomotion.
Digitigrade locomotion is called as such because of the focus of the digits during movement. In other words, digitigrade animals will walk on their toes. This movement and posture allows for elevated visibility as well as longer strides, aiding in maneuverability and speed. Humans, by comparison, are plantigrade, or heel-to-toe walkers. This form of locomotion aids us in endurance and balance, but we sacrifice a bit of speed. The third option of unguligrades refers to hoof walkers and are essentially tip-toeing constantly. This gives them a definitive spring in their step, which makes sense given that nearly all unguligrades are prey, rather than predator, and need to be able leap away quickly. However they sacrifice balance for this swiftness. Scientifically speaking, it is all a bit of give and take, with each animal's evolved locomotion form supporting their continued survival in some way.
What is the biggest single feather?
The biggest single feather in history was a tail feather from a rare, purposely bred, ornamental chicken breed that was on display during a bird show in Japan in 1972. The bird's tail feather measured 34.75 feet long. However, the longest naturally occurring wild bird feather comes from the tail feathers of the Crested Argus Pheasant, which can reach lengths of nearly 6 feet.
What is Pétanque?
Pétanque is a French bowling game that is played by rolling metal balls, or “boules,” toward a smaller wooden ball, or “jack.” Points are awarded to those closest to the jack at the end of the round. This is extremely similar to the English game of Bowls as well as the Italian game of Bocce. All three of which can trace their origination to a very similar game played during the later days of the Roman Empire. There are slight variances between the three, and each have their own respective "fanboy" following who are quick to argue the virtues of their preferred version over the other two, despite the gameplay being nearly identical.
I for one prefer Bocce, so you can take your Pétanque circles and shove them! :P
Kegeln is German for Skittles?
Certainly is! Kegeln, or Kegel, is a nine-pin bowling game that is played in parts of Australia. It is closely related to American 10-pin bowling or the British game of Skittles, which began as an ancient lawn game and has since evolved into a sport with many variations, including a very close relation to the game of Bowls discussed above.
Is Girl Talk a scientist?
Girl Talk, also known as Gregg Michael Gillis, was studying biomedical engineering at Case Western Reserve University with a focus on tissue engineering prior to quitting school – bio-engineering – in mid-2007 to pursue his musical career full time. His albums have won numerous awards, a fact which is made more impressive by the idea that all of the music are mashups of somebody else's work.
Either way, I find it particularly useful for concentrating on work as the perfect blend of recognizable, but not distracting, background noise. Love it.
Why are headbutts an issue in the UK?
The British Board of Film Classification, or BBFC, is far less forgiving when it comes to violence than our own MPAA. While their practices have lightened somewhat in recent years, opting to go the route of bumping up a film's rating as opposed to demanding a scene cut, most production studios still choose to perform the cut anyway in order to preserve the lower rating. There are some parallels to the MPAA's decisions regarding ratings and why they have been applied, particularly involving gore and/or nudity; however, it seems that headbutts are one action which has not been taken so lightly.
This is because, in the mid-1990s, the BBFC determined that while other actions, like chasing down a rogue Russian working for a traitorous MI6 agent with a tank, can be brushed off with a higher film rating, easily reproducible actions, like a simple headbutt, are wholly unacceptable. Headbutts have not been the only actions that have warranted complete censorship. The internal ruling determined that ANY dangerous action that can easily be imitated by viewers should be censored. This include neck-breaking, curb stomps, ear-claps, and visual/verbal references to suicide. This last point is typically very case-by-case since occasionally a movie comes along that uses suicide as a main plot point. Rarely does this happen with headbutts, though Van Damme is working again, so you never know.
No shortage of films have gotten the BBFC treatment. Notable films to have suffered this censorship include Kill Bill, Spiderman 2, Shrek 2, and even Mulan, because apparently Disney is more hardcore than the Brits.
How much does data weigh?
There was a time when this number fluctuated quite a bit more and with actual disk drives, but this number can still have some variance depending on the quality of the drive. This is because a hard disk's density is measured by the amount of bits of data it can store in a square inch, known as “areal density.” As technology has become more efficient, this number has predictably increased, which naturally makes the actual "weight" of the data lower. However, this method of figuring out the weight is a bit misleading since it is actually the weight of potential data. In truth, with this method, there does not need to be any data on the disk drive at all in order to get to the correct answer. This means that all of the math associated with areal density, for the purposes of this conversation, is not important. For the record, the potential weight of data for modern disk drives is around .5 micrograms, depending on the drive's specs.
In order to get to the bottom of this question, we need to know what "data" actually is. Without getting overly technical, I think we are all aware that data is stored in binary, or a sequence of true/false logic gates, that when aggregated give us a translatable data stream. Modern storage solutions like solid-state drives (SSD) store data using a "floating electron gate." What this means is that an electron floats along this toggle, providing either a charged (0), or not-charged (1) state, and therefore providing a storage medium and solution for larger data sets. What this means, for the purposes of our discussion, is that every bit of data is essentially equal to the weight of its electrons.
This number is determined by various factors, but rough estimates have placed the count as high as 100K in a single bit. A single electron's weight is roughly 9.10938215 × 10−31 kg. Even with these high numbers, a single bit would weigh approximately 400 femtograms, or 0.0000000000004 grams. Obviously this number is infinitesimal when attempting to measure small amounts of data; however, based on these calculations and additional VERY rough estimates, the amount of data stored across the entire internet is probably something like 200 grams. This would be just shy of half a pound and only slightly more than an iPhone.
How much sushi would give you mercury poisoning?
This is difficult to say. While it is absolutely true that high and frequent consumption of fish can lead you to become as "mad as a hatter," there are far too many variables involved to attempt an accurate estimate of what would be "too much." What I can tell you is that bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, swordfish, and king mackerel naturally contain some of the highest levels of mercury in the animal kingdom and these numbers can be exponentially higher depending on where the fish are sourced and the potential pollutants there. A 2015 study by the FDA claimed that a daily diet of sushi absolutely does put one at risk of developing mercury poisoning, and if you begin to experience symptoms such as drastic mood swings, paranoia, nervousness, insomnia, headaches, muscle spasms, etc. you should contact your doctor immediately.
Are wet dreams more "liquidy"?
They can be. There have actually been very few studies done on the details of nocturnal emissions during the act, for obvious reasons. The difficulty surrounding collecting a viable specimen makes studying the consistency of the ejaculate difficult. However, just based on what we know of the bulbourethral (or Cowper's) and prostate glands, the answer is confidently a "sometimes."
The Cowper's glands are responsible for roughly 5% of the seminal fluid's makeup. This secretion is a clear, watery liquid that is used for lubrication and cleansing of the urethra. This fluid is sometimes known by the moniker “precum,” or “pre-ejaculate.” Conversely, the prostate gland creates the majority of an ejaculation's volume. It is this milky-white fluid which is typically associated with a male orgasm, and it is this very obvious difference between these two fluids which can occasionally lead to wet dreams being more "liquid" than an... intended emission.
As the exact causes of nocturnal emissions are still somewhat of a mystery, with no shortage of random theories on the subject, it is difficult to say with any certainty what would cause the higher volume of Cowper's-gland-produced seminal fluid when asleep. This is further compounded by the fact that there is little consistency between the experiences of each man, and, in truth, very little in regards to the experiences of one man from one night to the next.
Do girls have wet dreams?
Er.. Yes-ish. If you are going into this question expecting me to tell you that there is documented evidence of a woman squirting during a dream-inspired orgasm, then I can say that, depending on what kind of crises you are willing to allow Google to believe you are going through, you may at least find anecdotal evidence of this. However, I should point out that not only can I not verify this story, I can't even verify that the one telling it is a female. Based on legitimate scientific studies in this area, of which there are even fewer than those regarding a male's nighttime experiences, the consensus is that women do in fact experience wet dreams in the sense that they have an increase in vaginal lubrication that may, or may not, culminate in an orgasm. There is a bit of a divide among the relevant community regarding the necessity of orgasm to constitute a "wet dream" and, since the majority lean toward this requirement, it leads to opinionated discussion about the frequency, or reality, of a female's wet dream. This is because very few women have reported having an orgasm while dreaming; typically, as was mentioned on the podcast, they are awoken prior to the climax and any orgasm from that point cannot be considered as part of a "dream state."
Google Maps solar panel tool?
Here it is. Pretty neat little application. Not the most economical option for me personally, and not just because I rent. What about you?